At the first sign of pregnancy she is placed under taboo lest evil befall the child through sorcery or inadvertently through offended deities. . Man for the narrow stream, woman for the broad stream, Born is the Hauliuli [snake mackerel] living in the sea, 232. The prostration taboo with the penalty for its infraction of death by burning, the terrible Kapu wela o na liʻi, tradition says was brought from the island of Kauai to Oahu whence it was introduced into Maui at the time of the ruling chief Kekaulike, who must have been a near contemporary of Ka-ʻI-ʻi-mamao, since his daughter Kalola became wife to that chiefʻs son; Malo indeed calls its introduction “modern.”2 Only the uncovering of the upper part of the body in coming into the presence of a high chief is noticed by Ellis in Tahiti.3 Firth speaks of the crouching position taken in Tikopia by one who brings a gift to appease a chief whose anger he has incurred, and Alexander reports from the Marshall Islands in the early seventies: “The people of . Born is the family of crawlers in the dim past—. In the case of the Kumulipo a number of such underlying meanings have been proposed, each sufficiently plausible in itself, but difficult of application in relation to the text as a whole. ], Born was the cock, perched on Wakeaʻs back, 1920. During this time grew the coral, the shellfish (such as the sea cucumber, the small sea urchin, the flat sea urchin, tiny mussels, the oysterlike mussels, the mussels of the sea, the clam, the barnacle, the dark sea snail, the cowry, and so forth). XVI. In the world of hula, it is not uncommon to hear a hula genealogy showing the passing down of hula from a kumu hula to a dancer, whether through devoted study in a hālau (school) or even to an ʻūniki (graduation) from this kumu. Swings Peaked-nose, swings Chicken-nose, Swings Hikikauelia [Sirius of navigators], swings Kaʻelo, Swings Kapawa, swings Hikikaulonomeha [Sirius of astrologers], 1885. Hanau ka Nahawele, o ka Unauna kana keiki, puka, 27. water was being carried by, the officer who bore it, a close relative with the title of wohi, warned with the cry Tapu! . Hina-ke-ka was abducted by Peʻapeʻa, He scratched out the eyes of the eight-eyed Peʻapeʻa, 2035. At all events the land-fishing expedition upon which she sends him is to be interpreted, not as so literally exploited in folk tale but as symbolizing a wooing expedition to win a wife by whom he may unite in their child the blood of close kin born in lands distant geographically but drawn together by this bond of family union. Swings the flower of the heavens, Kaulua-i-haʻimohaʻi, Puanene swings, the star that reveals a lord, Wainaku [patron star of Hilo] swings, swings Ikapaʻa, 1860. . . 8. 9     . The night world presses on toward the dawn until day finally comes forth, “opening wide.”, 595. of words once common to chiefs within their own inner circle. . This chant is called Ho'opuka E-ka-la Ma Kahikina. . Vikings of the Pacific, pp. There a Tangaroa god “who delighted in doing evil” set fire in the highest heaven “seeking thus to destroy everything.” “Tangaroa-i-te-po” he is called and “supreme ruler of the underworld.”16 In New Zealand a quarrel is said to have arisen between Tane and Tangaroa when reptiles took to the land and Tangaroa resented this encroachment upon his preserves.17 In the Tahitian octopus myth it is Tane who cuts away the clinging arms of the octopus body of Taʻaroa and fills earth and sky with beauty. . 1. If all the world loves a lover, all the world and their wives love a scandal, and a Hawaiian audience is particularly susceptible to this form of erotic titillation. . . . Finally, I skipped and went on, determined to return when I was doing research to gather the fruits of the detailed comparisons given there. They pretend to trace the family genealogy from its beginning. Queen Liliuokalani is more specific. TWENTY years have passed since the publication of Martha Warren Beckwithʻs translation and extended annotation of the Kumulipo, a Hawaiian cosmogonic and genealogical chant. MAKEMSON, MAUD. One such noted cycle, intrenched at the east end of the island of Maui, is headed by Ai-kanaka and the stranger wife who fled back to the moon.2 At line 2070 are born the sons of Palena and his wife Hikawainui, Hanalaʻa the great and Little Hanalaʻa, from whom important family lines branch on Hawaiian genealogies. “The second sea that made the chiefs fall down,” Ka lua o ke kai o Kahinaliʻi. The name song of Hinaʻs son Maui, born in the shape of a cock, as told in the chant of the next section, certainly represents such a struggle for position by one born of an alien strain. 9.) We the Tikopia: A Sociological Study of Kinship in Primitive Polynesia. In the manuscript the order is reversed, bird life illogically preceding fish and forest necessary for their food and nesting. To it one must turn in order to read the lines of the poetic composition which, in a dramatic religious setting, two priests recited over Captain Cook, believing him to be the reincarnation of the divine chief or god for whose infant namesake it had been composed nearly three-quarters of a century earlier. . the wife Kuaimehani, Slept with her grandchild Kaua-huli-honua, Slept with her grandchild Waia as [?] To the god Tane is ascribed power to cause the growth of vegetation. . . Poepoe quotes the Moʻolelo Hawaii in these words: “in this genealogy [the Kumulipo] it is said that the earth was not born nor was it made by hand but just grew.”1 David Malo writes, as translated by Emerson: “In the genealogy called Kumulipo it is said that the first human being was a woman named Laʻilaʻi and that her ancestors and parents were of the dim past [he po wale no], that she was the progenitor of the human race.” He goes on to tell how “The-chief-who-broke-through-heaven” (Ke-aliʻi-wahi-lani) looked below and saw this beautiful woman Laʻilaʻi dwelling in Lalowaia and came down and made her his wife, and “from the union of these two was begotten one of the ancestors of this race.” He imagines that these persons originated outside Hawaii but that their names have been preserved in Hawaiian genealogies.2, Kepelino, an early convert of the Roman Catholic mission and strongly influenced by the biblical story of creation, makes Kane the active agent in forming heaven and earth. . . XII. These lines as well as others unquestioned specifically may be differently understood when new light is thrown on the matter. . Fornander, Collection (“Memoirs,” No. Translation of the tenth chant is involved in considerable difficulty. The gist of the story seems to be that the woman left the land of “the gods in the heavens” and life with her legitimate mate to wed a mere mortal on earth, whose offspring, half-god, half-man, are known as the ruddy-faced, bearded stock traditionally known as “children of Kiʻi” and today connected with the family of the volcano goddess Pele, who thus becomes a fourth in the variations upon the part played by mother Eve in the Hawaiian genesis drama. Swings Hokuʻula, swings Poloahilani, Uliuli swings, Melemele swings [two lands of old], Swings the Pleiades, Makaliʻi, swings the Cluster, na Huihui, Swings Kokoiki [Kamehamehaʻs star], swings Humu [Altair], 1890. Born were the stingy, they were sour, Born were the puny, they were feeble ones, Born were the thickset, they were stalwart, Born were the broad-chested, broad was their badge in battle, Born were the family men, they were home lovers, 525. ma ka pewa or ma ka hiʻu) is used when a slim chance of escape offers itself in a dangerous predicament. The punning names have in some cases a practical magical function. ], Kameha-ʻi-kaua, The-secluded-one-supreme-in-war, god of Kauakahi, 1935. . As the sun symbolizes the procreative power whence life proceeds, whose source is the god of generation in the spirit world, so a chief descended from the god and “hot with fiercest taboo” carries on through procreation the continuity of the family line. he took his new shell for the great foundation of the world, for stratum rock and for soil for the world. Some make him a bungler, vainglorious and re-. This is not just one night, but many nights over time. suggest the Polynesian myth of the forcible separation of Earth and Sky to admit the light of day, but I do not know by what authority the idea is read into the word lole, which means “to turn inside out” and is the basis for the cataclysm of world forces read into the text by some commentators, as well as for the idea of the seasonal return of the sun northward at the opening of the new year, as in the queenʻs rendering. There is no suggestion in the Mangarevan myth that the function of warrior was attached to Ku, god of breadfruit and child of Haumea, nor is Haumea concerned with a popular folk tale told in Hawaii of the god Kuʻs change into a breadfruit tree, although her own conversion into such a tree must not be forgotten. Dr. Beckwithʻs. In 1778, they became the first Westerners to discover the Hawaiian Islands, and … xiv. . We must read this ancient prayer chant in the light of Polynesian thought. . White, II, 66-67, 72-73, 96-98; Buck, Ethnology of Mangareva, p. 310. vengeful; others, a benevolent culture bringer, using his gifts of magic for the good of man. It must be parenthetically observed that, in summarizing. Creation of the cosmos is the outer cloak of the poem, procreation of the divine child is the inner lining. Hanau ka ʻOʻo, hanau ka ʻAkilolo i ke kai la holo, 171. . Henry, pp. . . . She used the Hawaiian text written down by her brother and predecessor on the throne, King Kalakaua, who had published it in 1889, inspired by Adolf Bastian's interest in it and his own ambition to stabilize his claim to the shaky Hawaiian throne. “When he came to a certain point in his chant he would stop and a representative of some branch of the family would continue with the O ka holo [a]na kuwaluwalu ka linalina, 542. Hanau ka Piʻiʻawaʻawa, he ʻawaʻawa kona, 540. paha: improvised chant (Many other kinds are listed in Pukui-Elbert, English-Hawaiian Dictionary.) Parts are undoubtedly omitted or altered from their original form. . Part of. Offspring of both piʻo and hoʻi unions were entitled to the prostrating taboo, tapu-moe, but the child of a naha union had only the crouching taboo, tapu-a-noho. dowed their gods with the passions of men just as they gave their chiefs the honors of gods during life, and after death set them up as gods. . Immediately after, she sends him to his “father” after “line and hook.” Perhaps this is a parent on his motherʻs side. Compare the similar pause in nature preliminary to a new birth reported from New Zealand at the moment when the Wide Sky above, Rangi-nui, seeks Earth in the person of Papa-tu-a-nuku: “In that period the amount of light was nil; absolute and complete darkness (pokutikuti kakarauri) prevailed; there was no sun, no moon, no stars, no clouds, no light, no mist—no ripples stirred the surface of the ocean; no breath of air, a complete and absolute stillness.” There follows the “planting” (hikaia) of land growths corresponding to the “births” recorded in the first seven chants of the Kumulipo.1, In the Kumulipo this stillness in nature prepares for the emergence of gods and men. . . Every Hawaiian knows the story of how, during the great shark war, when the shark Mikololou was dragged ashore and eaten “all but his tail,” or his “tongue” in some versions, a dog seized the remnant and leaped with it into the sea, whereupon the shark, feeling itself in its native element, resumed its full form. GREY, SIR GEORGE. The chiefs own all the land and when a common native approaches the chief, he comes crouching.”4 Certainly the idea of the divinity of ruling chiefs and the consequent sacredness attaching to their persons and effects is not unique in the Polynesian area. . We also found that it was a title belonging to a person of great rank and power in the island, who resembles pretty much the Delai Lama of the Tartars, and the celestial emperor of Japan.”, The stone platform is still standing that marks the site of the heiau to which the priests of Lono conducted Cook and his companion for the ceremony of chanting and offerings appropriate to the welcome of a god. Man for the narrow stream, woman for the broad stream, Guarded by the moamoa plant living on land, 76. He brought with him the small hand drum and flute of the hula dance. generations old, Bent and grey the breast, worthless was [the one of] Nuʻu- mea[? The Prologue introduces the birth of a wonder child in the shape of a “hilu fish” as the theme for the listing of sea life to follow. In the 1870s the prestige of the foreign Genesis apparently overwhelmed the two native scholars and their friends, and the family owning the Kumulipo still shrouded it in secrecy because of its magical, religious, political, and sentimental values. Kamehameha himself genealogists claim direct descent in the fourth generation from the union of Kaulele with her half-brother Keawe. In 1949, the Pacific Number of the Journal of American Folklore contained her brief paper (later partly incorporated and revised in her book), “Function and Meaning of the Kumulipo Birth Chant of Ancient Hawaii” (vol. O ke Akua ke komo, ʻaʻoe komo kanaka, 106. 313-14; Stokes, Journal of the Polynesian Society, XXXIX, 1 ff. Wahieloa was the man, Hoʻolaukahili the wife, 2070. Both genealogies for the Kalakaua family derive finally through the mother. The eleventh section breaks into two parts of approximately four hundred pairs each. Kahuhu as sons of Haumea by Kanaloa and Kauaimehani wife of the first, Kauahulihonua of the second. 1. In subsequent sections the chants refer to the making of ornaments, weapons, and utensils for the child, to his canoe, to his sacred house and to various practices such as bathing, making cloth, etc., connected with it . London, 1936. . Hawaii Genealogy is being developed as a genealogical and historical resource for your personal use. Never may we outsiders rob them of their “sole treasure.”. . . Perhaps the myth of drawing the sun from its underworld hole in order to lighten a darkened world, told in Hawaii of the famous demigod Kana, was. At line 1984 it introduces the parents of the Maui brothers, and the section concludes with the name song of the Maui born “on the back of Wakea,” presumably the same Maui who heads the closing genealogy of the sixteenth section.]. . Fornander notes: “In the moʻolelo of Moi the prophet . . . 1. THE prose note explains the name Lono-i-ka-makahiki with which the final genealogy of the chant concludes— “To Ahu, to Ahu-a-ʻI, to Lono-i-ka-makahiki”—as the name given to the infant by his mother at his birth, to be replaced after his consecration in the temple by the name by which he is known in history. ) created heaven and earth, will take precedence over Hakea born in the first ancestors on that the. Preferred homes of the context, only through such symbolic meaning, Fakahotu-henua, arches sky. Taro patches of Lo'iloa, 495, 131-32, 144-46 ; smith, pp propping two above,. Additions may have been inaugurated by the Committee of 1904 notes the birth of rather. 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