Eruptive activity was then limited to minor fuming until USGS personnel left Pagan Island 28 May. 04/1981 (SEAN 06:04) Large tephra cloud; lava flows; 53 evacuated, 05/1981 (SEAN 06:05) Strong activity ends; USGS observations summarized, 06/1981 (SEAN 06:06) Renewed explosions on 11 June, 09/1981 (SEAN 06:09) New vent in the summit crater, 03/1983 (SEAN 08:03) Tephra deposits suggest 4-7 eruptions since May 1981, 08/1983 (SEAN 08:08) Ash cloud seen from aircraft, 10/1983 (SEAN 08:10) Explosive eruption on 26 September, 04/1984 (SEAN 09:04) Dark eruption columns, 04/1985 (SEAN 10:04) Plumes and new lava flow, 08/1987 (SEAN 12:08) Small eruption cloud; 1981 scoria has flowed into village, 02/1988 (SEAN 13:02) Haze 300 km S attributed to Pagan eruption, 09/1988 (SEAN 13:09) Satellite data on August eruption; renewed ash emission, 10/1988 (SEAN 13:10) Moderate ash emission; plume altitude corrected, 09/1990 (BGVN 15:09) Seismic station installed, 10/1990 (BGVN 15:10) Strong SO2-rich plume but no significant deformation or earthquake activity, 06/1992 (BGVN 17:06) Recent small ash eruption; long-period earthquakes and tremor; inflation, 03/1993 (BGVN 18:03) Banded tremor; increased ash eruptions, 05/1993 (BGVN 18:05) Intermittent ash emissions, 08/1993 (BGVN 18:08) Eruptive activity declines in August; several lahars, 02/1994 (BGVN 19:02) Increased ash output in 1993 from small eruptions, 01/2007 (BGVN 32:01) December 2006 eruption's long plumes and ashfall, 09/2009 (BGVN 34:09) Emission of a small plume in mid-April 2009, 07/2010 (BGVN 35:07) Minor ash emissions in August 2010, 12/2010 (BGVN 35:12) Quiet with only minor steam emissions in October and November 2010, 12/2012 (BGVN 37:12) Ash, gas, and thermal emissions during 2011-2012, Large tephra cloud; lava flows; 53 evacuated. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: During an overflight between 1000 and 1030 on 18 May, only weak to moderate emission of blue fume was noted. Minor gas-and-steam plumes from Pagan continued to be observed in satellite imagery during breaks in cloud cover from 25 June to 2 July. Information Contacts: Lt. Cmdr. A hole roughly 60 m below the crater rim on the NW side was spewing debris and brown smoke. A minimum of five minor eruptions per day were observed through 23 February. No thermal hotspots on Pagan have been detected by MODIS during the last five years. and a sulfur smell that occasionally wafted through their camp. Courtesy of NOAA/NESDIS. During 2012, the Washington VAAC released periodic notices describing emissions from Pagan; these reports were primarily during January, April, July, November, and December (table 3). We received no additional information regarding activity at Pagan until April 2009. Low-level gas-and-steam plumes from Pagan were observed in satellite imagery during 1-4 November. The plume was not evident on satellite images. In hand specimen, a sample of ejecta collected 17 February appeared to contain at least 30% non-juvenile material. Clear satellite views showed steam-and-gas emissions drifting from Pagan during 17-24 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. List of the World Active Volcanoes. In late 1992 and early 1993, longer bursts of tremor sustained for 5 minutes to more than an hour became increasingly common. . | August . References. Seismic monitors showed varying amounts of B-type events and harmonic tremor. Historical unrest at large calderas of the world. Baratang Island is the home of India’s only active Mud Volcano. The Pamban Railway Bridge was built in 1914 over the Indian Ocean and is India's first cantilever bridge. During 7-28 May 2010, satellite imagery revealed steam plumes from Pagan that drifted W. On 21 and 23 May, a U.S. No additional activity was reported until 8 February, when the mayor of the northern islands visited Pagan and found it erupting. Newhall C G, Dzurisin D, 1988. The Barren and Narcondam Island, note of Port Blair are volcanic Island (these are the only active volcanoes in India). Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 11: 1-332. Occasionally the plume appeared as a haze, when its moisture had been lost downwind. Given the correlation between tremor and ash eruptions, the continuously recording seismograph provides both an indirect, unbroken documentation of the volcano's eruptive behavior, and a way to make short-term forecasts of eruptive episodes to improve the safety of visits to the island. The Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level were lowered to Unassigned on 30 January. Haze 300 km S attributed to Pagan eruption. Strong SO2-rich plume but no significant deformation or earthquake activity. It is meant to protect foreign leaders from being subjected to laws that are not their own. A similar increase in seismicity during the midmorning of 24 May was followed by ash emission from both the N and S summit vents that lasted from early afternoon through the evening. Physical volcanology of the submarine Mariana and Volcano arcs. General References. The emission, hotter than its surroundings, drifted NW and quickly dissipated. On 23 April, a Northern Mariana Islands status report noted that a NOAA research vessel in the vicinity of Pagan reported incandescence at the summit of the volcano at night. The next day fishermen again reported a plume. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. | April "There were two very minor ash eruptions on 7 and 15 March; ashfall was confined to the summit cone. Automated forecasting of volcanic ash dispersion utilizing Virtual Globes, Natural Hazards, 51, 2, pp. 2.5 crore after conducting raids at several locations in Mumbai's Andheri West area. 2016: January "Six gas samples were collected from four cracks that opened during the 15 May eruption, and 1 sample of airfall scoria was fused and analyzed by electron microprobe by John Sinton (University of Hawaii). Visible satellite imagery interpreted by the Washington VAAC showed a small gas plume, possibly with minor ash, at 0733 on 5 December. According to NASA's Earth Observatory, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite detected elevated levels of SO2 just W of the volcano several hours after this image was acquired. Since mid-1993 there have been short bursts of tremor <30 minutes in duration at variable intervals and with amplitudes <10x background. Koyanagi, R., Kojima, G., Chong, F., and Chong, R., 1993, Seismic monitoring of earthquakes and volcanoes in the Northern Mariana Islands: 1993 summary report: Prepared for the Office of the Governor, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Capitol Hill, Saipan MP 96950 (revised 21 February 1993), 34 p. Trusdell, F. A., Moore, R. B., and Sako, M. K., 2006, Preliminary Geologic Map of Mount Pagan Volcano, Pagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report 2006-1386 (URL: Increased ash output in 1993 from small eruptions. Low-level unrest continued at Pagan during the week of 20 June; seismicity remained above background levels. The agency has called it the "biggest seizure" in the drugs case related to actor Sushant Singh Rajput's mysterious death in June. After that, the Volcanic Alert Level and Aviation Color Code were reduced from Advisory (Yellow) to Unassigned on 22 February 2011. A USGS team that visited Pagan on 9 February observed a continuous, vigorous plume and noted a sulfur odor downwind of the summit. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Sako, M.K., Trusdell, F.A., Koyanagi, R.Y., Kojima, G., and Moore, R.B., 1995, Volcanic investigations in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana islands, April to May 1994: U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-705, 57 p. Trusdell, F.A., Moore, R.B., and Sako, M.K., 2006, Preliminary geologic map of Mount Pagan volcano, Pagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands: U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1386, 32 p. Information Contacts: Emergency Management Office of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (EMO-CNMI), PO Box 100007, Saipan, MP 96950, USA (URL:; U.S. Geological Survey, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), PO Box 51, Hawaii National Park, HI 96718, USA (URL:; NASA Earth Observatory (URL: That day, the Saipan Emergency Management Center also reported that gases and ash were visible. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. Hand-specimen examination indicates that the 1981 basalt contains few (1-7%) phenocrysts (1-2 mm long) that are dominantly plagioclase and clinopyroxene. The several lava flow and ash-ejecting events after 15 May were all of minor volume. The Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation Center raised the volcano’s alert level to the second-highest level on Sunday after sensors picked up increasing activity. A warning to aircraft (SIGMET) issued early 26 August reports that an ash cloud from Pagan was observed near 18.2°N, 145.8°E on 25 August at 1015. They are among more than 120 active volcanoes in Indonesia, which is prone to seismic upheaval due to its location on the Pacific "Ring of Fire,” an arc of volcanoes and fault lines around the Pacific Ocean. Satellites provided additional plume heights and lengths 24-25 August (table 2). began on 15 May. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports. The coastal line has some coral deposits, and beautiful beaches. Fish and Wildlife Service research crew camping on the island reported that a trace amount of ash was deposited on their tents from a possible ash emission during the night. Eruption during 1993-94. According to the Washington VAAC a pilot observed a plume containing a small amount of ash that rose to an altitude below 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. 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